4. User interaction on the Internet
An effective approach in language learning is through group interaction. The world wide web and other relevant internet technologies can be used as a medium of communication to facilitate interaction among learners, instructors and their role models (native speakers of the target language) to a scale unprecedented before. There are five major types of internet applications which can be used to facilitate such group interaction:: Email, newsgroups, web forum, real-time chat and filesharing.
Email is perhaps the most popular internet application. Most of us use email on a daily basis. In language instruction, email can be used to enable discussion among learners, question and answer sessions between the learner and the instructor and learner contacts with native speakers of the target language. Learners' writing skills can also be improved through the exchange of messages in the target language with native speakers.
As far as the technical aspects of using email are concerned, there are three things you need to know:
4.1.2 Mailing list
Sometimes we want to send an email message to a group of people at the same time. We use such mass mailing function, for example, to facilitate group discussion among language learners. If the group is small, we can use the alias function in the email client program we use. Otherwise, we will use a network service called mailing list.
184.108.40.206 Using the alias function of an email client program
You can set up a mailing list on your own by using the alias function of your email client program. An alias is simple a mnemonic name for a list of email addresses. When you send an email using the alias name instead of a real email address, the email program actually sends a copy to each address listed in the alias file. Most email client programs such as Eudora (on both PC and Mac) and Pine (on Unix) support such a function.
An alias can be easily set up and updated by yourself. Further, you have full control of the email addresses listed in the alias. However, no one else but yourself can post to the list unless you send a copy of the list to each person who wants to use the list. Further, when user number increases, it will becomes increasingly difficult to manage the address list.
220.127.116.11 Mailing list service
When the number of users in a group is large and everyone wants to post to others at the same time, we will use something called mailing list service.
Mailing list service is provided by a mailing list software running on a dedicated email server. To install and configure a mailing list software requires both technical expertise and system administrator privileges on a server. Once the necessary mailing list software is installed and configured properly, the list administrators can set up various mailing lists. To set up a mailing list often requires system administrator privileges on the server.
There are several advantages in using a mailing list service over the alias function of an email client:
However, there are also some disadvantages:
Some popular mailing list software are:
Newsgroups are often called USENET news. It had been the major way of sharing information before the world wide web became popular. While the use of Usenet is on the decline, there is still a huge repertoire of information. Previous messages can still be retrieved from various locations on internet such as Dejanews.
While most newsgroups you have come across may be meant for the world at large, local newsgroups can be set up whose access can be restricted to your campus only.
Newsgroups are run through the so-called news server. This is usually run by the school's computing services. In theory, individuals do not have to run such a server, since it requires dedicated resources. They should seek the help of system administrators. Again newsgroups have similar functions as emailing addresses. You post to the newsgroup using an email client. They are shared by everyone through a newsgroup reader. Messages are archived and can be retrieved if necessary.
4.3 Web forum
4.3.1 What is web forum
A web forum is just a bulletin board on the web where users can post messages. It is known as discussion forums as well. A sample site can be found here.
Web forum is similar to mailing list and newsgroups in many ways. One big difference is that web forum does not push messages into one's boxes. You have to go out and get it. In comparison, if you subscribe to a mailing list, messages will be pushed into your mail box, whether you like it or not. Both web forums and mailing lists (as well as newsgroups) can be used wisely to meet different needs of language learners.
4.3.2 How to set up a web forum
There are many ways to set up a web forum on a Unix-based web server. If your Unix machine's web server is configured to allow you running CGI script, you can set up a web forum yourself. Free programs such as WWWboard can be obtained, for example, from www.cgi-resources.com. There are other programs such as Phorum which requires the assistance of system administrator.
(Placeholder: WWWboard set up)
If you have access to a Microsoft Internet Information Server with FrontPage Server Extensions installed, a discussion forum can be set up very easily. It is just a few clicks away and doesn't require much computer expertise. Recommended for novice users.
(Placeholder) NT+FrontPage setup
4.4.1 What is real-time chat
It is real time, for sure. With the help of video camera, users can also see each other face-to-face with audio and video support. This form is often called teleconferencing. The traditional way is through satellite TV. It is now through the internet, especially the web.
4.4.2 How to chat
4.4.3 Advantage vs. Disadvantage
An effective approach for learner interaction is through group collaboration. For example, there are times when a group of students need to share and/or edit files for their web project.
4.5.1 Using email
One option to share a file is to send it as an attachment in our email. Once the file is edited, for example, other people can send the revised version back to us.
4.5.2 Using FTP
Another option is that we can upload the file on our ftp server to allow others to download. Once their part of the job is done, they can upload the revised file back to same ftp server.
4.5.3 Using the web
Similar arrangement can be made through a web server for file downloading and uploading.
4.5.4 Filesharing service
There are times when it is more convenient for us to exchange files through what is called file sharing service.
A file is made available on a server machine so that others can access it over the network by a simple copying action, just like you copy files on your local machine (or local disk, to be more accurate). This kind of filesharing service is made possible by connecting different computers into a local area network (LAN). It should be pointed out that a LAN is not necessarily confined within a physical subnet. Remote machines across the entire internet can be arranged into a local area network. (This kind of arrangement is often called private virtual network).
Sharing files over the AppleTalk network can be set up by a user himself. Filesharing on other platforms often requires the assistance (and expertise) of a system administrator.
On the MacOS platform, AppleShare (seen in the Chooser window) is designed to provide such a service by default.
(Placeholder: how AppleShare works)
On the Windows platform, Network Neighborhood is what you see on your Desktop for that purpose.
(Placeholder: WindowsNT domain)
Files on a Unix system are shared among themselves through something known as NFS (Network file system). If you have an Unix account on a system with many users, it is most likely that you are already using the NFS service. For users who have accounts on the same unix system, to turn on filesharing is simply a matter of changing file/folder permissions.
(Placeholder: UNIX filesharing: allowing others to have read and/or access to your home directory)
18.104.22.168 Cross platform networking
(Placeholder: Samba for NT+UNIX networking)
4.6 Other options
There are other third party software which provide filesharing service across different platforms.
However, if server resources are readily available to you and your system administrator is cooperative, it is recommended that you use the filesharing services as described in the above section.
4.7 The convergence on the web