Each train service has a designation, which can consist of numbers and/or an initial letter K or T. K is the pinyin initial from the word 快车 (kuai4 che1) or fast train, whereas T for 特快 (te4 kuai4) or super fast. If there is no letter before a number, the designation usually means that the service is slow and will stop at almost every stop on its way.
The words under the 硬座 column are 售完 and 有座. 售完 means sold out, and 有座 have seats or seats available.
Long-distance trains usually will have one or more sleeping cars. A bed in a small and closed compartment with two or four beds is called 软卧 or soft cushion bed, whereas beds in a large open compartment aer called 硬卧.
The words under 硬卧 are 有卧 and 售完. 有卧 means to have beds or beds available.
软座 is a word in contrast to 硬座. The former means soft seat and the latter hard seat. Again both terms refer to the seating condition on a train.